REID (Research and Evaluation in Education)


ICT literacy, two level HLM, student and school variable, AKSI 2019

Document Type



This study aims to identify the effect of ICT literacy on mathematics achievement in grade 8 by using the Indonesian Student Competency Assessment's (Asesmen Kompetensi Siswa Indonesia or AKSI) 2019 questionnaire data. A multistage probability sample of 13,079 students was analyzed using a two-level hierarchical linear model (HLM) which student achievement scores are the first level laid in schools as the second level. The results of the analysis revealed that SES, the number of smartphones and computers that students have at home, the availability of ICT at home and school, the use of ICT for education, and perspective on the benefits of ICT in daily life have a positive influence on mathematics literacy achievement, while the easiness of access to the use of digital devices in schools has negative influence at the student level. At the school level, the high mathematics literacy achievement of students is influenced by the location of the school and the number of certified teachers. School accreditation and completeness of learning facilities in schools are not factors upon better students toward their mathematics literacy achievement. However, the interaction between the easiness of access to the use of digital devices in schools and the completeness of learning facilities in schools have an influence in increasing students' mathematics literacy achievement. Based on the diversity component, it is known that the diversity of students' mathematical literacy achievement explained by the student level and school-level variables are 33.24 and 0.18, respectively.

Page Range






Digital Object Identifier (DOI)





Ainley, J., Fraillon, J., & Freeman, C. (2010). National Assessment Program: ICT literacy years 6 & 10 report, 2008. https://www.nap.edu.au/_resources/NAP_ICTL_2011_Public_Report_Final.pdf

Center for Educational Assessment of the Ministry of Education and Culture. (2019a). Asesmen kompetensi siswa Indonesia. Pusat Penilaian Pendidikan. https://pusmenjar.kemdikbud.go.id/aksi-2/

Center for Educational Assessment of the Ministry of Education and Culture. (2019b). Contoh soal pada Asesmen Kompetensi Siswa Indonesia. Pusat Penilaian Pendidikan. https://aksi.puspendik.kemdikbud.go.id/report/example

Center for Educational Assessment of the Ministry of Education and Culture. (2019c). Respons siswa dalam penggunaan perangkat digital pada pembelajaran masa depan. Pusat Penilaian Pendidikan. https://aksi.puspendik.kemdikbud.go.id/report/student/ict

Chaterine, R. N. (2019, December 17). Akreditasi sekolah 2019: 25% A, 54% B, 18% C, dan 2% tak terakreditasi. Detik News. https://news.detik.com/berita/d-4825881/akreditasi-sekolah-2019-25-a-54-b-18-c-dan-2-tak-terakreditasi

Educational Testing Service. (2002). Digital transformation: A framework for ICT literacy. Educational Testing Service. https://www.ets.org/research/policy_research_reports/publications/report/2002/cjik

Fishbein, M., & Ajzen, I. (1975). Belief, attitude, intention, and behavior: An introduction to theory and research. Addison-Wesley. https://people.umass.edu/aizen/f&a1975.html

Helaluddin, H. (2019). Peningkatan kemampuan literasi teknologi dalam upaya mengembangkan inovasi pendidikan di perguruan tinggi. PENDAIS, 1(1), 44-55. https://uit.e-journal.id/JPAIs/article/view/218

Hu, X., Gong, Y., Lai, C., & Leung, F. K. S. (2018). The relationship between ICT and student literacy in mathematics, reading, and science across 44 countries: A multilevel analysis. Computers & Education, 125, 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2018.05.021

Jamaliah, M., & Cahyaningsih, U. (2020). Pengaruh sertifikasi guru terhadap prestasi belajar siswa. Prosiding Seminar Nasional Pendidikan 2, 434-440. https://prosiding.unma.ac.id/index.php/semnasfkip/article/view/352

Juditha, C. (2017). Tingkat literasi teknologi informasi komunikasi masyarakat Kota Makassar. Jurnal Penelitian Komunikasi, 14(1), 41-52. https://doi.org/10.20422/jpk.v14i1.167

Kim, H.-S., Kil, H.-J., & Shin, A. (2014). An analysis of variables affecting the ICT literacy level of Korean elementary school students. Computers & Education, 77, 29-38. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2014.04.009

Law No. 14 of 2005 of Republic of Indonesia about Teachers and Lecturers, (2005).

Lee, Y.-H., & Wu, J.-Y. (2012). The effect of individual differences in the inner and outer states of ICT on engagement in online reading activities and PISA 2009 reading literacy: Exploring the relationship between the old and new reading literacy. Learning and Individual Differences, 22(3), 336-342. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2012.01.007

Mairing, J. P. (2016). Kemampuan siswa kelas VIII SMP dalam memecahkan masalah Matematika berdasarkan tingkat akreditasi. Jurnal Kependidikan: Penelitian Inovasi Pembelajaran, 46(2), 179-192. https://journal.uny.ac.id/index.php/jk/article/view/9655

Nujumuddin, N. (2019). Dampak kebijakan akreditasi terhadap peningkatan kinerja guru madrasah (Studi di MI Nurul Muhsinin Desa Batujai). Jurnal Penelitian Keislaman, 15(1), 1-13. https://doi.org/10.20414/jpk.v15i1.1106

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. (2005). Are students ready for a technology-rich world? Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). https://doi.org/10.1787/9789264036093-en

Plumm, K. M. (2008). Technology in the classroom: Burning the bridges to the gaps in gender-biased education? Computers & Education, 50(3), 1052-1068. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2006.10.005

Samad, M., & Mangindara, M. (2019). Pengaruh model pembelajaran, akreditasi sekolah, dan kecerdasan emosional terhadap hasil belajar Matematika siswa kelas VIII SMP negeri di Kabupaten Gowa. EQUALS: Jurnal Ilmiah Pendidikan Matematika, 2(2), 74-84. https://ejournals.umma.ac.id/index.php/equals/article/view/307

Siswandoko, T., & Suryadi, A. (2013). Kompetensi, sertifikasi guru, dan kualitas belajar siswa sekolah dasar. Jurnal Pendidikan Dan Kebudayaan, 19(3), 305-314. https://doi.org/10.24832/jpnk.v19i3.290

Suci, S. C., & Mayangsari, W. (2017). Pengaruh sertifikasi guru terhadap prestasi belajar siswa pada Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan (SMK) Negeri 7 Pandeglang. Publik: Jurnal Ekonomi Dan Publik, 13(2), 139-152. http://www.jurnal.stie-banten.ac.id/index.php/publik/article/view/84

Sukarti, S. (2013). Isu gender dan sertifikasi guru versus prestasi belajar siswa. Jurnal Pendidikan, 14(1), 38-43. https://doi.org/10.33830/jp.v14i1.353.2013

Syarifuddin, S. (2014). Literasi teknologi informasi dan komunikasi. Jurnal Penelitian Komunikasi, 17(2), 153-164. https://doi.org/10.20422/jpk.v17i2.14

Trilling, B., & Fadel, C. (2009). 21st Century skills: Learning for life in our times. Jossey-Bass. https://www.wiley.com/en-us/21st+Century+Skills%3A+Learning+for+Life+in+Our+Times-p-9780470553916