REID (Research and Evaluation in Education)


technological and pedagogical content knowledge, TPACK, pre-service teacher

Document Type



This research aims at investigating the knowledge of ICT integration among the students of the English Language Education Study Program at a particular university in Yogyakarta. By employing the quantitative method, this ex-post facto research involved 70 English Department students who had taken microteaching as respondents in a survey to gather the data using a questionnaire. The questionnaire was taken from the model developed by one of the researchers based on the TPACK framework. There are five domains in the questionnaire. Four domains measure TPACK perceptions: Technological Knowledge (TK), Technological Content Knowledge (TCK), Technological Pedagogical Knowledge (TPK), and Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK). One domain measures the pre-service teachers' perceptions of their ICT-related learning experiences. Demographic questions are included to identify the characteristics of the respondents in order to understand gender differences or relationships between teachers who have access to technologies at home and those who do not. The closed-ended questions applied a five-point Likert-type scale ranging from 1=strongly disagree to 5=strongly agree. Correspondingly, it contains one open-ended question in the TPACK domain. Descriptive analysis and MANOVA were conducted for the quantitative data analysis. The result of this study showed that the pre-service students possess a high self-confidence in the application of TK (Technological Knowledge), TPK (Technological Pedagogical Knowledge), and TCK (Technological Content Knowledge). However, their TPACK appears to need further development. The results from MANOVA showed that the pre-service teachers' related learning experiences significantly differed by the students' gender, with male students reporting more experiences than female students.

Page Range






Digital Object Identifier (DOI)





Ahmadi, M. R. (2018). The use of technology in English language learning: A literature review. International Journal of Research in English Education, 3(2), 115-125. https://doi.org/10.29252/ijree.3.2.115

Ahmed, R., Al-kadi, A., & Hagar, T. (2020). Enhancements and limitations to ICT-based informal language learning: Emerging research and opportunities (R. Ahmed, A. Al-kadi, & T. Hagar (Eds.)). IGI Global. https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-7998-2116-8

Alelaimat, A. M., Ihmeideh, F. M., & Alkhawaldeh, M. F. (2020). Preparing preservice teachers for technology and digital media integration: Implications for early childhood teacher education programs. International Journal of Early Childhood, 52(3), 299-317. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13158-020-00276-2

Alkamel, M. A. A., & Chouthaiwale, S. S. (2018). The use of ICT tools in English language teaching and learning: A literature review. Veda's Journal of English Language and Literature-JOELL, 5(2), 29-33. http://joell.in/wp-content/uploads/2018/04/29-33-THE-USE-OF-ICT-TOOLS-IN-ENGLISH-LANGUAGE.pdf

Amir, Z., Ismail, K., & Hussin, S. (2011). Blogs in language learning: Maximizing students' collaborative writing. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 18, 537-543. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.05.079

Antonio, A., & Tuffley, D. (2014). The gender digital divide in developing countries. Future Internet, 6(4), 673-687. https://doi.org/10.3390/fi6040673

Blake, R. (2013). Brave new digital classroom: Technology and foreign language learning. Georgetown University Press.

Brown, H. D. (2000). Principles of language learning and teaching. Longman.

Bryan, V. C., & Wang, V. X. (Eds.). (2013). Technology use and research approaches for community education and professional development. IGI Global. https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-4666-2955-4

Chai, C. S., Koh, J. H. L., & Tsai, C.-C. (2010). Facilitating preservice teachers' development of technological, pedagogical, and content knowledge (TPACK). Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 13(4), 63-73. https://www.learntechlib.org/p/52307/

Ciptaningrum, D. S. (2017). The development of the survey of technology use, teaching, and technology-related learning experiences among pre-service English language teachers in Indonesia. Journal of Foreign Languange Teaching and Learning, 2(2), 11-26. https://doi.org/10.18196/ftl.2220

Ciptaningrum, D. S. (2018). The story of “Julie“: A life history study of the learning experiences of an Indonesian English language teacher in implementing ICT in her classroom. In S. Madya, F. Hamied, W. A. Renandya, C. Coombe, & Y. Basthomi (Eds.), ELT in Asia in the digital era: Global citizenship and identity - Proceedings of the 15th Asia TEFL and 64th TEFLIN international conference on English language teaching (pp. 495-503). Routledge. https://www.taylorfrancis.com/chapters/edit/10.1201/9781351217064-71/story-julie-life-history-study-learning-experiences-indonesian-english-language-teacher-implementing-ict-classroom-ciptaningrum

Deng, F., Chai, C. S., Tsai, C.-C., & Lee, M.-H. (2014). The relationships among Chinese practicing teachers' epistemic beliefs, pedagogical beliefs and their beliefs about the use of ICT. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 17(2), 245-256.

Ding, A.-C. E., Ottenbreit-Leftwich, A., Lu, Y.-H., & Glazewski, K. (2019). EFL teachers' pedagogical beliefs and practices with regard to using technology. Journal of Digital Learning in Teacher Education, 35(1), 20-39. https://doi.org/10.1080/21532974.2018.1537816

Ersanli, C. Y. (2016). Improving technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) of pre-service English language teachers. International Education Studies, 9(5), 18-27. https://doi.org/10.5539/ies.v9n5p18

Golonka, E. M., Bowles, A. R., Frank, V. M., Richardson, D. L., & Freynik, S. (2014). Technologies for foreign language learning: A review of technology types and their effectiveness. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 27(1), 70-105. https://doi.org/10.1080/09588221.2012.700315

Gönen, S. Ä°. K. (2019). A qualitative study on a situated experience of technology integration: Reflections from pre-service teachers and students. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 32(3), 163-189. https://doi.org/10.1080/09588221.2018.1552974

Goodwin, J. (1991). Teaching pronunciation. In M. Celce-Murcia (Ed.), Teaching English as a second or foreign language (pp. 117-138). Heinle & Heinle - Thomson Learning.

Hidayati, T. (2016). Integrating ICT in English language teaching and learning in Indonesia. JEELS (Journal of English Education and Linguistics Studies), 3(1). https://doi.org/10.30762/jeels.v3i1.173

Hutchison, A., & Reinking, D. (2011). Teachers' perceptions of integrating information and communication technologies into literacy instruction: A national survey in the United States. Reading Research Quarterly, 46(4), 312-333. https://doi.org/10.1002/RRQ.002

Kartchava, E., & Chung, S. (2015). Pre-service and in-service English as a second language teachers' beliefs about the use of digital technology in the classroom. Studies in English Language Teaching, 3(4), 355-383. https://doi.org/10.22158/selt.v3n4p355

Keengwe, J. (Ed.). (2013). Research perspectives and best practices in educational technology integration. IGI Global. https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-4666-2988-2

Kern, R., Ware, P., & Warschauer, M. (2017). Network-based language teaching. In Second and foreign language education (pp. 197-209). Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-02246-8_30

Kılıçkaya, F., & Krajka, J. (2012). Can the use of web-based comic strip creation tool facilitate EFL learners' grammar and sentence writing? British Journal of Educational Technology, 43(6), E161-E165. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8535.2012.01298.x

Koehler, M. J., Mishra, P., Kereluik, K., Shin, T. S., & Graham, C. R. (2014). The technological pedagogical content knowledge framework. In Handbook of research on educational communications and technology (pp. 101-111). Springer New York. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-3185-5_9

Koehler, M. J., Mishra, P., & Yahya, K. (2007). Tracing the development of teacher knowledge in a design seminar: Integrating content, pedagogy and technology. Computers & Education, 49(3), 740-762. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2005.11.012

Koh, J. H. L., Chai, C. S., Benjamin, W., & Hong, H.-Y. (2015). Technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) and design thinking: A framework to support ICT lesson design for 21st century learning. The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 24(3), 535-543. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40299-015-0237-2

Krashen, S. D. (1985). The input hypothesis: Issues and implications. Addison-Wesley Longman Ltd.

Kurt, G., Akyel, A., Koçoğlu, Z., & Mishra, P. (2014). TPACK in practice: A qualitative study on technology integrated lesson planning and implementation of Turkish pre-service teachers of English. ELT Research Journal, 3(3), 153-166. https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/download/article-file/63644

Kwangsawad, T. (2016). Examining EFL pre-service teachers' TPACK trough self-report, lesson plans and actual practice. Journal of Education and Learning (EduLearn), 10(2), 103-108. https://doi.org/10.11591/edulearn.v10i2.3575

Lantolf, J. P. (1994). Sociocultural theory and second language learning: Introduction to the special issue. The Modern Language Journal, 78(4), 418-420. https://doi.org/10.2307/328580

Liu, M., Moore, Z., Graham, L., & Lee, S. (2002). A look at the research on computer-based technology use in second language learning. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 34(3), 250-273. https://doi.org/10.1080/15391523.2002.10782348

Majumdar, S. (2015). Emerging trends in ICT for education & training. Gen. Asia Pacific Reg. IVETA. https://www.stthomascollegebhilai.in/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/emergingtrendsinictforeducationandtraining.pdf

Mei, B., Brown, G. T. L., & Teo, T. (2018). Toward an understanding of preservice English as a foreign language teachers' acceptance of computer-assisted language learning 2.0 in the People's Republic of China. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 56(1), 74-104. https://doi.org/10.1177/0735633117700144

Mirzaei, A., Rahimi Domakani, M., & Rahimi, S. (2016). Computerized lexis-based instruction in EFL classrooms: Using multi-purpose LexisBOARD to teach L2 vocabulary. ReCALL, 28(1), 22-43. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0958344015000129

Mishra, P., & Koehler, M. J. (2006). Technological pedagogical content knowledge: A framework for teacher knowledge. Teachers College Record, 108(6), 1017-1054. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9620.2006.00684.x

Mishra, P., & Koehler, M. J. (2008). Introducing technological pedagogical content knowledge. Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association - Research on Schools, Neighborhoods, and Communities: Toward Civic Responsibility, 1-15.

Öz, H. (2015). Assessing pre-service English as a foreign language teachers' technological pedagogical content knowledge. International Education Studies, 8(5), 119-130. https://doi.org/10.5539/ies.v8n5p119

Pica, T. (1994). Research on negotiation: What does it reveal about second-language learning conditions, processes, and outcomes? Language Learning, 44(3), 493-527. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-1770.1994.tb01115.x

Raygan, A., & Moradkhani, S. (2020). Factors influencing technology integration in an EFL context: Investigating EFL teachers' attitudes, TPACK level, and educational climate. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 1-22. https://doi.org/10.1080/09588221.2020.1839106

Regulation of the Minister of National Education No. 16 of 2007 on the Teacher's Standard of Academic Qualification and Competence, (2007).

Regulation of the Minister of National Education No. 41 of 2007 on the Process Standard for Primary and Secondary Educational Units, (2007).

Regulation of the Minister of National Education No. 78 of 2009 on the Implementation of International-Standard School on Primary and Secondary Educational Levels, (2009).

Rosetta Stone and Project Tomorrow. (2013). World language teachers and their use of technology. Rosetta Stone. https://resources.rosettastone.com/assets/lp/9999999999/resources/speaking-the-language-of-the-21st-century.pdf

Shulman, L. S. (1986). Those who understand: Knowledge growth in teaching. Educational Researcher, 15(2), 4-14. https://doi.org/10.3102/0013189X015002004

Shulman, L. S. (1987). Knowledge and teaching: Foundations of the new reform. Harvard Educational Review, 57(1), 1-23. https://doi.org/10.17763/haer.57.1.j463w79r56455411

Swain, M., & Lapkin, S. (1995). Problems in output and the cognitive processes they generate: A step towards second language learning. Applied Linguistics, 16(3), 371-391. https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/16.3.371

Taopan, L. L., Drajati, N. A., & Sumardi, S. (2020). TPACK framework: Challenges and opportunities in EFL classrooms. Research and Innovation in Language Learning, 3(1), 1-22. https://doi.org/10.33603/rill.v3i1.2763

Tondeur, J., Roblin, N. P., van Braak, J., Fisser, P., & Voogt, J. (2013). Technological pedagogical content knowledge in teacher education: In search of a new curriculum. Educational Studies, 39(2), 239-243. https://doi.org/10.1080/03055698.2012.713548

Tour, E. (2015). Digital mindsets: Teachers' technology use in personal life and teaching. Language Learning & Technology, 19(3), 124-139. https://www.lltjournal.org/item/2923

Tseng, J.-J. (2016). Developing an instrument for assessing technological pedagogical content knowledge as perceived by EFL students. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 29(2), 302-315. https://doi.org/10.1080/09588221.2014.941369

Turgut, Y. (2017). Tracing preservice English language teachers' perceived TPACK in sophomore, junior, and senior levels. Cogent Education, 4(1), 1368612. https://doi.org/10.1080/2331186X.2017.1368612

van Olphen, M. (2008). World language teacher education and educational technology: A look into CK, PCK, and TPCK. Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association - Research on Schools, Neighborhoods, and Communities: Toward Civic Responsibility.

Wang, Y., Chung, C. J., & Hattingh, E. (2014). A blending approach in technology integrated ESL writing instruction. In M. Searson & M. Ochoa (Eds.), Proceedings of SITE 2014--Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference (pp. 1139-1144). Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE). https://www.learntechlib.org/primary/p/130922/

Warschauer, M. (1997). Computer-mediated collaborative learning: Theory and practice. The Modern Language Journal, 81(4), 470-481. https://doi.org/10.2307/328890

Yet, T. S., & Noordin, N. B. (2017). The use of ICT among pre-service English language teachers. International Journal of English Language Education, 5(1), 100-112. https://doi.org/10.5296/ijele.v5i1.10779