REID (Research and Evaluation in Education)


reading interest, affect, cognition, behavior, factor analysis

Document Type



The present study examines the relationships between the psycho-behavioral constructs underlying undergraduate students' reading interest. The a priori framework for conceptualizing the sub-components of reading interest is based on two modes of reading (printed-text-based and also Internet-based), and three types of psycho-behavioral motives/intentions of reading (affective, cognitive, and behavioral). Participants in this study were students (M = 20.14 years old) from an Indonesian university (n = 993). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses show the salience of 10 factors across reading modes and psycho-behavioral domains of reading. The most accept-able SEM models that explore the relationships among the sub-components of reading interest have the student reading interest in the print mode preceded interest in reading online materials. Implications of these findings are discussed for theory development and practice.

Page Range






Digital Object Identifier (DOI)





Alterman, E. (2007). Out of print: The death and life of the American newspaper. Caligrama (São Paulo. Online), 3.

Bentler, P. M. (2005). EQS 6 structural equations program manual. Encino, California: Multivariate Software, Inc.

Boyd, M. P., & Yin, Z. (1996). Cognitive-affective sources of sport enjoyment in adolescent sport participants. Adolescence, 31, 383-395.

Brockman, G. (2006). What factors influence achievement in remedial Mathematics classes? (Ed.D Dissertation), University of Southern California.

Buzzetto-More, N., Guy, R., & Elobaid, M. (2007). Reading in a digital age: E-books are students ready for this learning object? Interdisciplinary Journal of E-Learning and Learning Objects, 3, 239-250.

Byrne, B. M. (2006). Structural Equation Modeling with EQS: Basic Concepts, Applications, and Programming: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Carroll, B., & Loumidis, J. (2001). Children's perceived competence and enjoyment in physical education and physical activity outside school. European physical education review, 7, 24-43.

Cheung, C. M., Chiu, P.-Y., & Lee, M. K. (2011). Online social networks: why do students use Facebook? Computers in Human Behavior, 27, 1337-1343. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2010.07.028

Chouinard, R., Karsenti, T., & Roy, N. (2007). Relations among competence beliefs, utility value, achievement goals, and effort in mathematics. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 77, 501-517. doi: 10.1348/000709906X133589

Clanton, J., Gardner, A., Cheung, M., Mellert, L., Evancho-Chapman, M., & George, R. L. (2014). The relationship between confidence and competence in the development of surgical skills. Journal of surgical education, 71, 405-412. doi: 10.1016/j.jsurg.2013.08.009

Clark, C., & De Zoysa, S. (2011). Mapping the interrelationships of reading enjoyment, attitudes, behaviour and attainment: An exploratory investigation. National Literacy Trust, 1-16.

Cocks, R. J., & Watt, H. M. (2004). Relationships among perceived competence, intrinsic value and mastery goal orientation in English and maths. The Australian Educational Researcher, 31, 81-111.

Coiro, J. (2011a). Predicting reading comprehension on the Internet: Contributions of offline reading skills, online reading skills, and prior knowledge. Journal of Literacy Research, 43, 352-392. doi: 10.1177/1086296x11421979

Coiro, J. (2011b). Talking about reading as thinking: modeling the hidden complexities of online reading comprehension. Theory Into Practice, 50, 107-115. doi: 10.1080/00405841.2011.558435

Coiro, J., & Dobler, E. (2007). Exploring the online reading comprehension strategies used by sixth-grade skilled readers to search for and locate information Internet. Reading Research Quarterly, 42, 214-257. doi: 10.1598/RRQ.42.2.2

Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1997). Flow and the psychology of discovery and invention. HarperPerennial, New York, 39.

De Waal, E., Schönbach, K., & Lauf, E. (2005). Online newspapers: A substitute or complement for print newspapers and other information channels? Communications, 30, 55-72. doi: 10.1515/comm.2005.30.1.55

Dunst, C. J., & Dempsey, I. (2007). Family-professional partnerships and parenting competence, confidence, and enjoyment. International Journal of Disability, Development and Education, 54, 305-318. doi: 0.1080/10349120701488772

Durik, A. M., Vida, M., & Eccles, J. S. (2006). Task values and ability beliefs as predictors of high school literacy choices: A developmental analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98(2), 382.

Eccles, J. S. (1983). Expectancies, values, and academic behaviors.

Frenzel, A. C., Goetz, T., Stephens, E. J., & Jacob, B. (2009). Antecedents and effects of teachers' emotional experiences: An integrated perspective and empirical test: Springer.

Junco, R. (2012). Too much face and not enough books: The relationship between multiple indices of Facebook use and academic performance. Computers in Human Behavior, 28, 187-198. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2011.08.026

Karim, N. S. A., & Hasan, A. (2007). Reading habits and attitude in the digital age. The Electronic Library, 25, 285-298. doi: 10.1108/02640470710754805

Kirchhoff, S. M. (2010). US newspaper industry in transition: DIANE Publishing.

Kirschner, P. A., & Karpinski, A. C. (2010). Facebook® and academic performance. Computers in Human Behavior, 26, 1237-1245. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2010.03.024

Lau, K.-l., & Ho, E. S.-c. (2015). Reading performance and self-regulated learning of Hong Kong students: What we learnt from PISA 2009. The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 1-13.

Lee, P. S., & Leung, L. (2008). Assessing the displacement effects of the Internet. Telematics and Informatics, 25, 145-155. doi: 10.1016/j.tele.2006.08.002

Liu, Z. (2005). Reading behavior in the digital environment: Changes in reading behavior over the past ten years. Journal of Documentation, 61, 700-712. doi: 10.1108/00220410510632040

Liu, Z., & Huang, X. (2008). Gender differences in the online reading environment. Journal of Documentation, 64(4), 616-626. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/00220410810884101

Marsh, H. W., & Martin, A. J. (2011). Academic self“concept and academic achievement: Relations and causal ordering. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 81, 59-77. doi: .1348/000709910X503501

McGeown, S. P., Johnston, R. S., Walker, J., Howatson, K., Stockburn, A., & Dufton, P. (2015). The relationship between young children's enjoyment of learning to read, reading attitudes, confidence and attainment. Educational Research, 57, 389-402. doi: 10.1080/00131881.2015.1091234

McKenna, M. C., Conradi, K., Lawrence, C., Jang, B. G., & Meyer, J. P. (2012). Reading attitudes of middle school students: Results of a U.S. survey. Reading Research Quarterly, 47, 283-306. doi: 10.1002/rrq.021

Mokhtari, K., Reichard, C. A., & Gardner, A. (2009). The impact of internet and television use on the reading habits and practices of college students. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 52, 609-619. doi: 10.1598/JAAL.52.7.6

Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (1998-2012). Mplus User's Guide. Seventh Edition. CA: Muthén & Muthén Los Angeles.

Nakamura, J., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2002). The concept of flow. Handbook of positive psychology, 89-105.

Putro, N.H.P.S. 2017. Reading interest in a digital age. (Ph.D. Dissertation). The University of New South Wales.

OECD. (2009). PISA 2009 results: Students on line: Digital technologies and performance (Volume VI).

Pajares, F., & Johnson, M. J. (1994). Confidence and competence in writing: The role of self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and apprehension. Research in the Teaching of English, 313-331.

Perry, R. P., & Smart, J. C. (2007). The scholarship of teaching and learning in higher education: An evidence-based perspective: Springer Science & Business Media.

Schleicher, A. (2016). Teaching excellence through professional learning and policy reform: Lessons from around the world. International summit on the teaching profession. OECD Publishing. doi: 10.1789/9789264252059.en

Schmar-Dobler, E. (2003). Reading on the Internet: The link between literacy and technology. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 47, 80-85. doi: 10.2307/40026906

Shernoff, D. J., Csikszentmihalyi, M., Shneider, B., & Shernoff, E. S. (2003). Student engagement in high school classrooms from the perspective of flow theory. School Psychology Quarterly, 18, 158. doi: 10.1521/scpq.

Sherry, J. L. (2004). Flow and media enjoyment. Communication Theory, 14, 328-347.

Stankov, L., & Lee, J. (2008). Confidence and cognitive test performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100, 961. doi: 10.1037/a0012546

Sundar, S. S. (2015). The Handbook of the Psychology of Communication Technology Retrieved from http://unsw.eblib.com/patron/FullRecord.aspx?p=1895448

Tenopir, C., Volentine, R., & King, D. W. (2013). Social media and scholarly reading. Online Information Review, 37, 193-216. doi: 10.1108/OIR-04-2012-0062

Valkenburg, P. M., & Peter, J. (2007). Online communication and adolescent well“being: Testing the stimulation versus the displacement hypothesis. Journal of Computer“Mediated Communication, 12, 1169-1182. doi: 10.1111/j.1083-6101.2007.00368.x

Veenhof, B. (2006). The Internet: Is it changing the way Canadians spend their time? : Statistics Canada.

Walsh, M. (2010). Multimodal literacy: What does it mean for classroom practice? Australian Journal of Language and Literacy, 33, 211-223.

Wang, J., & Wang, X. (2012). Structural equation modeling: Applications using Mplus: John Wiley & Sons.

Weber, R., Tamborini, R., Westcott“Baker, A., & Kantor, B. (2009). Theorizing flow and media enjoyment as cognitive synchronization of attentional and reward networks. Communication Theory, 19, 397-422. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2885.2009.01352.x

Wigfield, A. (1994). Expectancy-Value Theory of Achievement Motivation: A Developmental Perspective. Educational Psychology Review, 6, 49-78. doi: 10.2307/23359359

Wigfield, A., & Eccles, J. S. (2002). The development of competence beliefs, expectancies for success, and achievement values from childhood through adolescence. In G. D. Phye (Ed.), Development of achievement motivation (pp. 91-120): Academic Press.

Wigfield, A., & Tonks, S. (2002). Adolescents' expectancies for success and achievement task values during the middle and high school years. Academic motivation of adolescents, 53-82.

Wilson, N., Bouhuijs, P., Conradie, H., Reuter, H., Van Heerden, B., & Marais, B. (2008). Perceived educational value and enjoyment of a rural clinical rotation for medical students. Rural Remote Health, 8, 999.