REID (Research and Evaluation in Education)


validity coefficient, Aiken formula, expanded Gregory formula, SRL scale

Document Type



This study aims to prove the content validity of the self-regulated learning (SRL) scale using Likert model and multiple-choice model with content validity coefficient based on expert assessments with Aiken formula and expanded Gregory formula. In this study, the SRL scale with Likert and multiple-choice model are developed using the same outline/format. There are three experts who assess the items' relevancy using indicators of both scale formats. The results of the expert assessments are then used to calculate the coefficient of the validity with Aiken formula and the expanded Gregory formula. The results showed that the content validity coefficient based on expert assessment on Likert and multiple-choice format with Aiken formula is at 0.9 for each, while using the Aiken formula and expanded Gregory formula, the coefficient is 0.6 for Likert, and 0.8 for multiple-choice.

Page Range






Digital Object Identifier (DOI)





Aiken, L, R. (1980). Content validity and reliability of single items or question-naires. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 40, 955-967.

Aiken, L, R. (1985). Three coefficients for analyzing the reliability and validity of ratings. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 45, 131-142.

Allen, M. J. & Yen, W. M. (1979). Introduction to measurement theory. Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole.

American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, and National Council on Measurement in Education. (1999). Standards for edu-cational and psychological testing. Washington, DC: American Psycholog-ical Association.

Cizek, G.J., Rosenberg, S.L. & Koons, H.H. (2008). Source of validity evidence for educational and psychological test. Educational and Psychological Measurement, Vol. 68, pp. 397-412.

Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2011). Research methods in education. New York, NY: Routledge.

Fernandes, H. J. X. (1984). Evaluation of educational program. Jakarta: National Education Planning, Evaluating and Curriculum Development.

Gregory, R.J. (2007). Psychological testing: history, principles, and applications. Boston, MA: Pearson.

Kerlinger, F.N. (1986). Asas-asas penelitian behavioral [Behavioral research prin-ciples] (L.R. Simatupang, trans.). Yogyakarta: Gajahmada University Press.

Kivinen, K. (2013). Assessing motivation and the use of learning strategies by secondary school students in three international schools (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Tampere, Finland.

Lawrence, M.R. (1994). Question to ask when evaluating test. Eric Digest. Retrieved from http://www.ericfacility.net/eric digest /edu.385607.html.

Linn, R.L. & Gronlund, N.E. (1995). Measure-ment and assessment in teaching (7th ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Lissitz, W. & Samuelsen, K. (2007). Further clarification regarding validity and edu-cation. Educational Researcher, Vol. 36, No. 8, pp. 482-484.

Messick, S. (1989). Validity in R. L. Linn (Ed.), Educational measurement (3rd ed., pp. 13-103). New York, NY: Macmillan.

Nunnally, J. (1978). Psychometric theory (2nd ed.) . New York, NY: McGraw Hill.

Schunk, D. H. (2005). Self-regulated learning. The educational legacy of Paul R. Pintrich. Educational Psychologist, 40, 85-94.

Vrieling, E., Bastiaens, T., & Stijnend, S., (2012). Effects of increased Self-Regulated Learning opportunities on student teachers' motivation and use of metacognitive skills. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, Vol 37, 6, August 2012.

Wolkers, C.A., Pintrich, P.R., & Karabenick, S.A., (2003). Assesing academic Self-Regulated Learning. Paper presented on the Conference on Indicators of Positive Development: Definitions, Measures, and Prospective Validity, Washington, DC.

Woolfolk, A. E. & McCune, L. N. (1984). Educational psychology for teachers. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Zimmerman, B.J. (1989). A social cognitive view of Self-Regulated Academic Learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 81(3).

Zimmerman, B.J. (1990). Self-Regulated Learning and academic achievement: An overview. Education Psychologist, 25(1), 3-17.

Zimmerman, B. J. (2000). Attaining self-regulation: A social cognitive perspec-tive. In Boekaerts, M., Pintrich, P. R., and Zeidner, M. (eds.), Handbook of Self-Regulation: Theory, research, and applications, Academic Press, San Diego, CA, pp. 13-39.

Zumbrunn, S., Tadlock, J., & Danielle, E. (2011). Encouraging Self-Regulated Learning in the classroom: A review of the literature. Metropolitan Educational Research Consortium (MERC). Virginia Commonwealth University.