REID (Research and Evaluation in Education)


implementation, total quality management, vocational high schools

Document Type



This study aims to determine the implementation of Total Quality Management (TQM) in public and private vocational high schools in the city of Yogyakarta, as well as to compare the level of implementation between public and private vocational high schools. The TQM aspects observed include infrastructures and facilities, quality of improvement, quality of teachers, quality of examination system and academic background of teachers graduated from vocational high schools. This exploratory study is descriptive in which the result can be used as an input as well as improvements in reflection of the future. These subjects were teachers and students. The primary data were collected through a questionnaire while other data were collected through observation and interviews. The data were analyzed by means of descriptive and statistics t-test. The analysis finds that TQM has been implemented by vocational schools, public and private, in the city of Yogyakarta. The Application levels differed significantly (t-value = 9.204, p-value = <0.0001), where the public schools are able to implement at a very good level, while private schools are at a good level. The differences in the application of TQM occur in all measurable aspects, namely infrastructures and facilities access, quality of improvement, quality of teachers, quality of examination system and academic background of teachers graduated from vocational high schools. Specifically, on aspects of infrastructures and facilities of the access, although on average they significantly differ, categorically they are in the same level. The differences are not too large. The result of observation in the field during the study shows that the state vocational already maximally implement TQM, while in the private vocational schools, it is lower due to the limited resources in private schools.

Page Range






Digital Object Identifier (DOI)





Arikunto,S. (2006). Prosedur penelitian:Suatu pendekatan praktik [Research procedure: A practical approach]. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta.

Baedhowi. (2008). Strategi Peningkatan Kualitas dan Kompetensi Guru [Strategy of teachers‟ quality and competences improvement]. Direktorat Jenderal Peningkatan Mutu Pendidik dan Tenaga Kependidikan Departemen. Jakarta: Pendidikan Nasional.

Creswell, J. W. (2012). Educational research planning, conducting and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research. California: Sage Publishers, Inc.

Departemen Pendidikan Nasional Indonesia. (2003). Peraturan Menteri Nasional RepublikIndonesianomor 20 tahun 2003 tentang Sistem Pendidikan Nasional (UUSPN/20/2003) Pasal 50, Ayat 3 [The regulation of the National Ministry of Indonesian Republic no. 2 year 2003 about National Education System article 50, paragraph 3]. Jakarta: Depdiknas.

Departemen Pendidikan Nasional Indonesia. (2005). Education Statisticsn2011. Journal Tends International

Mathematics Science Study (TIMSS) 2011. Retrieved on March 2011. Jakarta: Education Quality and Accountability Office (EQAO).

Direktorat Pembinaan SMK. (2008). Vocational school development program 2008. Jakarta: Directorate of Senior Vocational School Ministry of National Education

Education Minister of Indonesia. (2006). Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan (KTSP) jenjang SMK [Curriculum at Education Unit Levelat Vocational High School]. Jakarta: BSNP.

Federal Government experience. (1992). How to get started implementing totalquality management. Total quality management handbook. Washington, D.C: Federal Quality Institute.

Isaac, S.& Michael, W.B. (1995). Handbook in research and evaluation: For educators and behaviorals cience(2nded.). San Diego, California: Edits Publishers.

Khotari, C. R. (2004). Research methodology: Methods and techniques (2nded.). New Delhi: New Age International.

Minister of Education and Culture. Act No. 20/2003. International Journal of conference EAS TVET Provider Network Workshop, Friday 16/2012. Melbourne, Autralia: TVET Provider Network Workshop.

Minister of National Education Degree No.22, No.23 and No. 24. (2006). Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan (KTSP)2007 [Curriculum at Education Unit Level 2007]. Jakarta: Depdiknas

Peers, I. S. (2006). Statistical analysis for education & psychology researchers. Bristol, UK: USA The Falmer Press.

Sallis, E. (2002). Total quality management in education(3rded.). Virginia, USA: Quicksilver Drive Sterling.

Umaedi. (2000). Manajemen peningkatan mutu berbasis sekolah: Dinamika Pendidikan [School-based quality improvement management: Education dynamics]. Dikmenum, dirjen Dikdasmen. Jakarta: Depdikbud.