Crisis Communication, Framing Analysis, New Zealand, Sri Lanka, Terrorism

Document Type



This article aims to analyze the frame of the government official statement in Mosque Christhurch Attack in New Zealand (March 2019) and Easter Sunday Attack in Sri Lanka (April 2019). The two cases were chosen because they place Muslim in contradictory positions: as victim in New Zealand and as perpetrator in Sri Lanka. This study uses framing analysis method to examine the official statement uploaded in the official websites of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of New Zealand and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Sri Lanka, within seven days after the incident. The data gathered from the text analysis is then followed by data triangulation using expert judgement technique. The result shows that there are differences in information content. The New Zealand government emphasizes their own actions in the country, while the Sri Lankan government focuses on the activities carried out abroad and the supports, they receive from other countries. In doing so, the New Zealand government highlights the presence of Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern while the Sri Lankan government presents information from many state officials, instead of the head of state. These differences show that the content of official statement is highly influenced by the socio-political condition in the country.

First Page


Last Page


Page Range






Digital Object Identifier (DOI)





Aliff, S. M. (2015). Post-War Conflict in Sri Lanka: Violence against Sri Lankan Muslims and Buddhist Hegemony. International Letters of Social and Humanistic Sciences, 109-125. https://doi.org/10.18052/www.scipress.com/ilshs.59.109

Benini, A., Chataigner, P., Noumri, N., Parham, N., Sweeney, J., & Tax, L. (2017). Expert Judgment: The use of expert judgment in humanitarian analysis - Theory, methods and applications. Encyclopedia of Quantitative Risk Analysis and Assessment. https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470061596.risk0525

Canel, M. J., & Sanders, K. (2010). Crisis Communication and Terrorist Attacks: Framing a Response to the 2004 Madrid Bombings and 2005 London Bombings. In W. Timothy Coombs and Sherry J. Holladay (Ed.), The Handbook of Crisis Communication. West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781444314885.ch22

Corbin, C. M. (2017). Essay: Terrorists are always muslim but never white: At the intersection of critical race theory and propaganda. Fordham Law Review, 455.

Cornelissen, J. (2011). Corporate Communication: A Guide to Theory and Practice 4th edition. Los Angeles: SAGE.

Devotta, N. (2018). Religious intolerance in post-civil war Sri Lanka. Asian Affairs, 49(2), 278-300. https://doi.org/10.1080/03068374.2018.1467660

Fadli, S. (2018). Statemen Sari Roti Pasca 212 dalam Perspektif Filsafat Bahasa Biasa John Langshaw Austin. NALAR: Jurnal Peradaban Dan Pemikiran Islam, 2(2), 67-74. https://doi.org/10.23971/njppi.v2i2.911

Flanja, D. (2019, May 2). Terrorist Attacks - A Challenge in Crisis Communication. International Conference RCIC'19: Redefining Community in Intercultural Context.

Gaweesh, K. S. (2013). Corporate reputation and communication: The case of 'Arla Foods' and Prophet 'Muhammad' cartoons. Journal of Arab & Muslim Media Research, 5(3), 259-277. https://doi.org/10.1386/jammr.5.3.259_1

Hargie, O., & Irving, P. (2016). Crisis Communication and Terrorist Attacks. In S. Andreas, W. S. Matthew, & C. Auer (Eds.), The Handbook of International Crisis Communication Research. West Sussex, UK: Wiley Blackwell. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118516812.ch9

Kriyantono, R. (2014). Teori Public Relations Perspektif Barat Dan Lokal: Aplikasi Penelitiandan Praktik. Kencana.

Ma'arif, M. R. (2017). Analisis Konten Twitter dalam Kasus Boikot Sari Roti Paska Peristiwa Aksi Bela Islam 3 (Content Analysis of Twitter in the Case of Boycotting Sari Roti after the 3rd Defending Islam Act). Jurnal Penelitian Pers Dan Komunikasi Pembangunan, 21(1), 59-70.

Mubarok, M., & Wulandari, D. (2018). Konstruksi media dalam pemberitaan kontra terorisme di indonesia. INFORMASI, 48(1), 139-152. https://doi.org/10.21831/informasi.v48i1.18620

Ozdeser, H., Cavusoglu, B., & James, O. T. (2019). Terrorism Will Not Survive in the Realm of New Zealand. Journal of City and Development, 1(1), 23-27. https://doi.org/10.12691/JCD-1-1-4

Prastya, N. M. (2016). Analisis Framing dalam Riset Public Relations. INFORMASI, 46(2), 193-203. https://doi.org/10.21831/informasi.v46i2.10565

Ulmer, R. R., Sellnow, T. L., & Seeger, M. W. (2011). Effective Crisis Communication: Moving from Crisis to Opportunity. Thousand Oaks: SAGE.

Ward, C., Stuart, J., & Adam, Z. M. (2019). A critical narrative review of research about the experiences of being Muslim in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Psychology, 47(1), 37-48.


Ministry of Foreign Relations - Sri Lanka (2019a) "Foreign National Casualties At Explosions In Sri Lanka | Media Releases | Sun, 21 Apr 2019" (URL: https://www.mfa.gov.lk/media-release-7/. Tanggal akses : 1 Agustus 2019)

Ministry of Foreign Relations - Sri Lanka (2019b) "The Dutch Government and People Stand In Solidarity With Sri Lanka in The Wakes of The Easter Sunday Terrorist Attacks | Mission News | Sat, 27 Apr 2019" (URL: https://www.mfa.gov.lk/the-dutch-government-and-people-stand-in-solidarity-with-sri-lanka-in-the-wake-of-the-easter-sunday-terrorist-attacks-2/. Tanggal akses : 1 Agustus 2019)

Ministry of Foreign Relations - Sri Lanka (2019c) "Consulate General of Sri Lanka to Dubai Holds A Multi-Religious Function In Memory Of The Victims And Their Family Members Of The Recent Series Of Explosions | Mission News | Sun, 28 Apr 2019" (URL: https://www.mfa.gov.lk/consulate-general-of-sri-lanka-to-dubai-holds-a-multi-religious-function-in-memory-of-the-victims-and-their-family-members-of-the-recent-series-of-explosions/. Tanggal akses : 1 Agustus 2019)

New Zealand Foreign Affairs and Trade (2019a) "Statement from Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern on the Christchurch terror attacks - March 15" (URL : https://www.mfat.govt.nz/en/media-and-resources/ministry-statements-and-speeches/statement-from-prime-minister-jacinda-ardern-on-the-christchurch-terror-attacks-march-15/. Tanggal akses : 30 Juli 2019)

New Zealand Foreign Affairs and Trade (2019b) "Statement delivered by Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern on Christchurch mosques terror attack on 19 March 2019" (URL: https://www.mfat.govt.nz/en/media-and-resources/ministry-statements-and-speeches/prime-minister-jacinda-arderns-house-statement-on-christchurch-mosques-terror-attack/. Tanggal akses : 30 Juli 2019)

New Zealand Foreign Affairs and Trade (2019c) "New Zealand Statement to the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation Emergency Meeting, March 22, 2019" (URL : https://www.mfat.govt.nz/en/media-and-resources/ministry-statements-and-speeches/new-zealand-statement-to-the-organisation-of-islamic-cooperation-emergency-meeting/. Tanggal akses : 30 Juli 2019)