Miss Universe controversy, selfie, public diplomacy, Media Framing, Framing Analysis

Document Type



An international controversy occurred after the selfie between Miss Israel and Miss Lebanon went viral. The Instagram post received many responds from public whether its positive or negative feedbacks, the selfie itself involves a group photo of the Miss Universe contestants that are Miss Israel, Miss Lebanon, Miss Slovak and Miss Japan. After the post was posted by Miss Israel and went viral, Miss Lebanon received many critics relating to her existence in the picture. She was then accused of violating the Lebanon policy for being in contact with an Israeli whereas there are strict rules against any form of association with Israel. The objective of this research is uncover the media framing between Miss Israel and Miss Lebanon 2015 selfie controversy. This research will analyze articles from two different media that are CNN and BBC that uses the framing theory by Entman, to solve the research problem through four steps of the theory that are to define problem, identify causal interpretation, make moral evaluations, and give treatment/ recommendations. This research result that the two news portal stand for is to acknowledge where they are from, CNN is from the United States whilst BBC is from the United Kingdom. The United States and Israel has always had a special relationship amongst them. America will often back up Israel in any aspects, in other hand UK does not share the same relationship with any of these countries.


Kontroversi di dunia internasional muncul setelah swafoto antara Miss Israel dan Miss Lebanon menjadi viral. Instagram mengirimkan tanggapan-tanggapan dari publik yang berisikan komentar-komentar negatif ataupun positif. Swafoto yang diunggah tersebut berisi foto sederet kontestan Miss Universe yang terdiri dari Miss Israel, Miss Lebanon, Miss Slovak dan Miss Japan. Setelah foto tersebut diunggah oleh Miss Israel dan menjadi viral, Miss Lebanon menuai banyak kritikan yang berkaitan dengan keberadaannya dalam foto tersebut. Dia kemudian dituduh telah melanggar kebijakan Lebanon karena melakukan swafoto dengan warga Israel padahal telah ada aturan yang cukup jelas mengenai pelarangan bekerjasama dengan warga Israel. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah mengungkap framing media dari kontroversi swafoto yang dilakukan oleh Miss Israel dan Miss Lebanon 2015. Penelitian yang menganalisis artikel-artikel dari dua media yang berbeda yaitu CNN dan BBC ini menggunakan teori framing model Entman. Selain itu, penelitian ini menggunakan empat tahapan dari teori model Entman untuk menjawab permasalahan penelitian yang ada, yaitu menentukan permasalahan, mengidentifikasi interpretasi, membuat evaluasi tentang moral, dan memberikan rekomendasi. Hasil dari penelitian ini adalah masing-masing portal berita tersebut berada pada pihak masing-masing dimana CNN berasal dari Amerika dan BBC berasal dari UK. Amerika dan Israel selalu berada apada hubungan bilateral yang baik. Amerika akan selalu mendukung Israel di segala bidang, sebaliknya UK tidak memiliki hubungan sebaik kedua negara tersebut.

First Page


Last Page


Page Range






Digital Object Identifier (DOI)





About Us. (2017). Retrieved April 5, 2017, from Miss Universe Website: https://cms.missuniverse.com/pages/aboutus

Addis , C. L., & Blanchard, C. M. (2011). Hezbollah: Background and Issues for Congress. Congressional Research Service. www.crs.gov.

AIPAC. (2016). (The American Israel Public Affairs Committee) Retrieved October 25, 2016, from AIPAC: http://www.aipac.org

Bjola, C., & Holmes, M. (2015). Digital Diplomacy: Theory and Practice. London, England, UK: Routledge.

Brown, L. C. (2004). DIPLOMACY IN THE MIDDLE EAST. New York, United States: B.Tauris & Co Ltd.

Callahan, W. A. (2006). Cultural Governance and Resistance in Pacific Asia. USA: Routledge.

Conolly, J. (2015, January 20). Articles. Retrieved October 20, 2016, from BBC : http://www.bbc.co.uk/newsbeat/article/30878930/miss-israel-posts-a-selfie-on-instagram-with-miss-lebanon-and-causes-an-online-storm

Cresswell, J. W. (2009). RESEARCH DESIGN Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches. Thousand Oaks, California, United states of America: SAGE Publications, Inc.

Darden, J. T. (2013, November 8). Retrieved June 5, 2017, from Foreign Policy: http://foreignpolicy.com/2013/11/08/what-does-miss-universe-2013-tell-us-about-world-politics-in-2013/

Entman. (1993, December). Framing: Toward Clarification of a Fractured Paradigm. Journal of Communication, 43(4), 51-58.

Entman, R. M. (2003). Projections of Power: Framing News, Public Opinion, and U.S. Foreign Policy. Chicago, USA: University of Chicago Press.

Ezzi, G. E. (2012). Positive peace for Lebanon: reconciliation, reform and resilience. (E. Picard, & A. Ramsbotham, Eds.) Accord(24), 73-75. Retrieved from Conciliation Resources : http://www.c-r.org/downloads/Accord24_IsraelandPeaceinLebanon.pdf

Gilboa, E. (2001). Diplomacy in the media age: Three models of uses and effects. Diplomacy & Statecraft, 30.

Grinberg, E. (2015, January 26). (Turner Broadcasting System, Inc) Retrieved September 20, 2016, from CNN International Edition: http://edition.cnn.com/2015/01/25/living/feat-miss-universe-beauty-pageants-politics/

Hanson, J. (2016). The Social Media Revolution. Santa Barbara, California, USA: Greenwood.

Harel, A., & Issacharoff, A. (2008). 34 DAY ISRAEL, HEZBOLLAH, AND THE WAR IN LEBANON (Vol. I). United States of America: PALGRAVE MACMILLAN.

Jones, K. (1997). Women Transforming Politics. USA: New York University Press.

King-O'riaini, R. C. (2007). Making the Perfect Queen: The Cultural Production of Identities in Beauty Pageants. sociology compass, 74.

Liputan6. (2016, Mei 5). News. Retrieved September 24, 2016, from Liputan 6: http://news.liputan6.com/read/2500293/selfie-di-gedung-kosong-koja-bocah-smp-tewas-jatuh-dari-lantai-5

Meiselwitz, G. (2016). Social Computing and Social Media. USA: Springer.

Melissen, J. (2005). The New Public Diplomacy: Soft Power in International Relations. New York, USA: PALGRAVE MACMILLAN.

Miss Universe. (2016). (Miss Universe) Retrieved September 24, 2016, from © 2016 IMG Universe, LLC. : http://www.missuniverse.com

Morris, B. (2014, August 11). news. (Telegraph Media Group) Retrieved October 25, 2016, from The Telegraph: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/middleeast/israel/11024978/When-did-Britain-lose-faith-in-Israel.html

Nye, J. J. (2008, March). Public Diplomacy & Soft Power. Annals American Academy of Political and Social Science, 616, 94-109.

Pageants. (2017). Retrieved April 5, 2017, from Pageantcenter.com: http://pageantcenter.com/miss_universe_pageant.html

Pinoy, Pol. (August 4, 2016). https://adobochronicles.com/2016/08/04/philippines-bans-china-from-participating-in-the-2017-miss-universe-pageant-in-manila/ (accessed September 20, 2017).

Pollock, M. E. (2012, November 7). policy-analysis. (The Washington Institute for Near East Policy ) Retrieved October 25, 2016, from The Washington Institute: http://www.washingtoninstitute.org/policy-analysis/view/friends-with-benefits-why-the-u.s.-israeli-alliance-is-good-for-america

Rabil, R. G. (2011). Religion, National Identity, and Confessional Politics in Lebanon (1st Edition ed.). New York, USA: PALGRAVE MACMILLAN.

Rana, K. S. (2011). 21st Century Diplomacy. (L. Lloyd, Ed.) London, UK: The Continuum International Publishing Group.

Sandre, A. (2015). Digital Diplomacy. USA: Rowman & Littlefield.

Shah, R., & Tewari, R. (2016, July 2016). Demystifying 'selfie': a rampant social media activity. Behaviour & Information Technology, 8.

Totten, M. J. (2013, July). Article. Retrieved September 20, 2016, from The Tower: http://www.thetower.org/article/dreaming-of-a-lebanon-completely-at-peace/

Trochim, W., & Donnelly, J. P. (2006). The Research Methods Knowledge Base (3rd Edition ed.). Cengage Learning.

Van Deth, J. W. (2000). Interesting but Irrelevant: Social Capital and the Saliency of Politics in Western Europe. European Journal of Political Research.

Zaller, J. R. (1992). The Nature and Origins of Mass Opinion. USA: Cambridge University Press.