Civic engagement, online civic engagement, social media

Document Type



The Industrial Revolution 4.0, which makes the internet its backbone, has accelerated the process due to the Covid-19 pandemic which forced citizens to shift all their activities to the digital world, including the involvement of citizens in responding to public discourse. Citizens' public discourses that previously took place in real public spaces have now shifted to digital spaces, one of which is social media. To bridge these changes, a conceptualization of civic engagement is needed through a digital platform. The online citizen involvement was later referred to as online civic engagement, namely civic engagement activities specifically carried out by digital citizens involving several types of digital media, one of which is social media. This literature study provides a clearer picture of the forms of community interaction through social media that go beyond what is known as "slacktivism". When many democracies are faced with the problem of decreasing citizen participation in politics, social media comes with a new form of civic interaction with what is meant by online civic engagement.

First Page


Last Page


Page Range






Digital Object Identifier (DOI)





Adler, R. P., & Goggin, J. (2005). What do we mean by "civic engagement"? Journal of Transformative Education, 3(3 July), 236-253. https://doi.org/10.1177/1541344605276792

Agostino, M. J. D., & Visser, A. (2010). Addressing and overcoming barriers to youth civic engagement. International Public Management Review, 11(3), 88-103.

Alber, J. M., Bernhardt, J. M., Stellefson, M., Weiler, R. M., Anderson-Lewis, C., Miller, M. D., & MacInnes, J. (2015). Designing and testing an inventory for measuring social media competency of certified health education specialists. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 17(9), 221-221. https://doi.org/10.2196/jmir.4943

BBC.com. (2010). Kejaksaan keluarkan deponeering Bibit-Chandra. Bbc.Com.

Bennett, W. L., Wells, C., & Freelon, D. (2011). Communicating civic engagement: Contrasting models of citizenship in the youth web sphere. Journal of Communication, 61(5), 835-856. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.2011.01588.x

Brandtzaeg, P. B., Mainsah, H., & Følstad, A. (2012). Designing for youth civic engagement in social media. In P. Kommers, P. Isaías, & N. Bessis (Eds.), IADIS International Conferences Web Based Communities and Social Media and Collaborative Technologies 2012 (Issue July, pp. 65-72). IADIS International Conferences Web Based Communities and Social Media and Collaborative Technologies 2012.

Carr, C. T., & Hayes, R. A. (2015). Social media: Defining, developing, and divining. Atlantic Journal of Communication, 23(1), 46-65. https://doi.org/10.1080/15456870.2015.972282

Cho, A., Byrne, J., & Pelter, Z. (2020). Digital civic engagement by young people (Issue February). UNICEF Office of Global Insight and Policy Alexander.

Darmawan, C., Syaifullah, & Anggraeni, L. (2016). The development of civic engagement to empower student potential through entrepreneurial student program. 1st UPI International Conference on Sociology Education, 385-388.

Denning, D. E. (2001). Activism, hacktivism, and cyberterrorism: The internet as a tool for influencing foreign policy. The Computer Security Journal, XVI, 15-35.

Detik.com. (2009a). "Koin untuk Prita" Jaring 8.600 Facebooker. Inet.Detik.Com.

Detik.com. (2009b). Pendukung Bibit-Chandra di FB tembus 1 juta! Detik.Com.

Detik.com. (2012). Ini dia kronologi Prita mencari keadilan. Detik.Com.

Ehrlich, T. (2000). Civic responsibility and higher education (American council on education oryx press series on higher Ed) (The ACE series on higher education). Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

Ekman, J., & Amnå, E. (2012). Political participation and civic engagement: Towards a new typology. Journal of Human Affairs, 22(3), 283-300. https://doi.org/10.2478/s13374-012-0024-1

Fahmi, I. (2019). SNA #GejayanMemanggil. Droneemprit.Id.

Gladwell, M. (2010, October). Small change: Why the revolution will not be tweeted. New Yorker.

Gordon, E., Baldwin-Philippi, J., & Balestra, M. (2013). Why we engage: How theories of human behavior contribute to our understanding of civic engagement in a digital era. SSRN Electronic Journal, 21, 1-29. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2343762

Hamid, F., Rahman, A., & Morissan. (2015). Pro-sosial, anti-sosial pengguna media sosial di kalangan generasi muda. Jurnal Ilmu Ekonomi Dan Sosial, 4(1), 50-66. https://www.neliti.com/publications/237540/pro-sosial-anti-sosial-pengguna-media-sosial-di-kalangan-generasi-muda

Hylton, M. E. (2018). The role of civic literacy and social empathy on rates of civic engagement among university students. Journal of Higher Education Outreach and Engagement, 22(1), 87. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1175772

Jenkins, H. (2006). Convergence culture: Where old and new media collide. New York University Press.

Kemp, S. (2021). Digital 2021: Indonesia. Datareportal.Com.

Lewis, B. K. (2010). Social Media and strategic communication: Attitudes and perceptions among college students. Public Relations Journal, 4(3). https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Social-Media-and-Strategic-Communication%3A-Attitudes-Lewis/2847427095934bb519a3ea5c418f99cbc2cb7b06

Liputan6.com. (2009). Laporan dan rekomendasi tim 8 (Bab IV - V). Liputan6.Com.

McQuail, D. (2010). Mass communication theory (6th ed.). SAGE Publication.

Morissan. (2014). Media sosial dan partisipasi sosial di kalangan generasi muda. Jurnal Visi Komunikasi, 13(01), 50-68. https://publikasi.mercubuana.ac.id/index.php/viskom/article/view/366

Mossberger, K., Tolbert, C. J., & McNeal, R. S. (2008). Digital citizenship. The internet, society, and participation. The MIT Press.

Muhkam, M. F., & Darmawan, C. (2018). The urgency of public space in strengthening civic engagement as an asset in facing the chalanges of industrial revolution 4.0. Proceeding The 3rd International Seminar on Social Studies and History Education (ISSSHE) 2018, 127-133.

Mulyono, B. (2017). Reorientasi civic disposition dalam kurikulum Pendidikan Kewarganegaraan sebagai upaya membentuk warga negara yang ideal. Jurnal Civics: Media Kajian Kewarganegaraan, 14(2), 218-225. https://doi.org/10.21831/civics.v14i2.17007

Mulyono, B., Affandi, I., Suryadi, K., & Darmawan, C. (2021). Digital citizenship competence: Initiating ethical guidelines and responsibilities for digital citizens. The First HISPISI's International Conference on Humanities, Education, Law, and Social Sciences (ICHELLSS) 2021, 165-175.

O'Connor, J. S. (2006). Civic engagement in higher education. Change, September/October, 52-58. https://doi.org/10.3200/CHNG.38.5.52-58

Okezone.com. (2009). Koin untuk Prita terkumpul RP 825 juta. Okezone.Com.

Palfrey, J., & Gasser, U. (2008). Born digital: Understanding the first generation of digital natives. Basic Book.

Pancer, S. M., Rose-Krasnor, L., & Loiselle, L. D. (2002). Youth conferences as a context for engagement. New Direction for Youth Development, Winter 200(96), 47-64. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1002/yd.26

Pasek, J., More, E., & Romer, D. (2009). Realizing the social Internet? Online social networking meets offline civic engagement. Journal of Information Technology & Politics, 6, 197-215. https://doi.org/10.1080/19331680902996403

Putnam, R. D. (1993). Making democracy work: Civic tradition in modern Italy. Princeton University Press.

Putnam, R. D. (2001). Bowling alone: The collapse and revival of American community. Simon and Schuster.

Raynes-Goldie, K., & Walker, L. (2008). Our space: Online civic engagement tools for youth. In W. L. Bennett (Ed.), Civic life online: Learning how digital media can engage youth (pp. 161-188). MIT Press.

Saepudin, E., Suryadi, K., & Malihah, E. (2018). Deliberative democracy in digital era. International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, 9(4), 859-863. https://www.ijser.org/onlineResearchPaperViewer.aspx?Deliberative-Democracy-in-Digital-Era.pdf

Shirky, C. (2008). Here comes everybody: The power of organizing without organizations. Penguin.

Shirky, C. (2011). The political power of social media: Technology, the public sphere, and political change. Foreign Affairs, 90(1), 28-41. https://www.jstor.org/stable/25800379

Skoric, M. M., Zhu, Q., Goh, D., & Pang, N. (2015). Social media and citizen engagement: A meta-analytic review. New Media & Society, 18(9). https://doi.org/10.1177/1461444815616221

Tempo.co. (2019). Presiden Jokowi: Tunda pengesahan 4 undang-undang. Tempo.Co.

Terry, M. (2009). Twittering healthcare: social media and medicine. Telemedicine and E-Heath, 15(6), 507-510. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1089/tmj.2009.9955

Uldam, J., & Vestergaard, A. (2015). Introduction: Social media and civic engagement. In J. Uldam & A. Vestergaard (Eds.), Civic Engagement and Social Media: Political Participation Beyond Protest (pp. 1-23). Palgrave Macmillan. https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137434166

Valenzuela, S. (2013). Unpacking the use of social media for protest behavior: The roles of information, opinion expression, and activism. American Behavioral Scientist, 57(2), 920-942. https://doi.org/10.1177/0002764213479375

Warren, A. M., Sulaiman, A., & Jaafar, N. I. (2014). Social media effects on fostering online civic engagement and building citizen trust and trust in institutions. Government Information Quarterly, 31(2), 291-301. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.giq.2013.11.007