COVID-19, Termination of Employment (PHK), Legal Protection

Document Type



The Indonesian government has declared Covid-19 a pandemic, leading to restrictions such as working from home and room capacity limits. These restrictions have resulted in numerous layoffs, and the pandemic has been deemed a national disaster, with laws and regulations like Presidential Decree No. 12 of 2020 strengthening the reasons for entrepreneurs to consider it a force majeure event. The economic sector's decline has direct implications for employees, both in formal and informal sectors, due to decreased production, depletion of industrial raw materials, weakening of the Rupiah against the Dollar, decline in Indonesian tourism, and the fall of the composite stock index. Employers have been forced to lay off their workers. Legal protection for workers includes termination of employment (PHK) and layoff provisions regulated by Articles 150-172 of Law 13/2003. This descriptive analysis aims to provide an overview of legal protection for workers during the pandemic, including the analysis and interpretation of laws and regulations related to the problem under study.

First Page


Last Page


Page Range






Digital Object Identifier (DOI)





Abid, M., Gheraia, Z., Abdelli, H., Sekrafi, H., & Diaw, A. (2022). COVID-19 pandemic and economic impacts in Arab countries: Challenges and policies. Research in Globalization, 5, 100103. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resglo.2022.100103

Auerbach, J. D., Forsyth, A. D., Davey, C., & Hargreaves, J. R. (2023). Living with COVID-19 and preparing for future pandemics: revisiting lessons from the HIV pandemic. The Lancet HIV, 10(1), e62-e68. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3018(22)00301-0

de Miranda, C. B., Silva-Junior, J. S., Garcia, K. K. S., de Sousa, F. N. E. F., & Fischer, F. M. (2023). Vocational Rehabilitation and Length of Stay at Work after Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders: A Longitudinal Study in Brazil. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 20(3). https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20032334

Fan, W., Anser, M. K., Nasir, M. H., & Nazar, R. (2023). Uncertainty in firm innovation scheme and impact of green fiscal policy; Economic recovery of Chinese firms in the post-Covid-19 era. Economic Analysis and Policy, 78, 1424-1439. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eap.2023.04.002

Fatemi, F., Fallah-Aliabadi, S., Sarsangi, A., Dehghani, M., & Heydari, A. (2023). Investigating the impacts of socio-economic vulnerability indicators on COVID-19: A case study of Yazd, Iran. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 91, 103676. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2023.103676

Flabbi, L., & Tejada, M. M. (2023). Are informal self-employment and informal employment as employee behaviorally distinct labor force states? Economics Letters, 231, 111278. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.econlet.2023.111278

Gaffar, S., Karsona, A. M., Pujiwati, Y., & Perwira, I. (2021). The concept of procedural law regarding the implementation of collective agreements with legal certainty in termination of employment in Indonesia. Heliyon, 7(4), e06690. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e06690

García-Pérez-de-Lema, D., Madrid-Guijarro, A., & Duréndez, A. (2022). Operating, financial and investment impacts of Covid-19 in SMEs: Public policy demands to sustainable recovery considering the economic sector moderating effect. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 75, 102951. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2022.102951

George, T. K., Sharma, P., Joy, M., Seelan, G., Sekar, A., Gunasekaran, K., Abhilash, K. P. P., George, T., Rajan, S. J., & Hansdak, S. G. (2023). The economic impact of a COVID-19 illness from the perspective of families seeking care in a private hospital in India. Dialogues in Health, 2, 100139. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dialog.2023.100139

Kasmir, K. (2016). Manajemen sumber daya manusia (teori dan praktik). In Jakarta: Rajawali Pers. Raja Grafindo Persada.

Li, C., Zhang, Y., Chen, Z., Wang, X., Yue, M., Liu, J., Jiang, Y., Zhao, Z., & Cai, G. (2023). Systematic and dynamic impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on marine economic development, air pollution and energy consumption: A case study of China's coastal regions. Ocean & Coastal Management, 244, 106774. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2023.106774

Liu, F., Kong, D., Xiao, Z., Zhang, X., Zhou, A., & Qi, J. (2022). Effect of economic policies on the stock and bond market under the impact of COVID-19. Journal of Safety Science and Resilience, 3(1), 24-38. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnlssr.2021.10.006

Liu, J., Tang, J., & Sun, M. (2023). The impact of the COVID-19 prevention and economic interventions on express delivery industry: Evidence from in China. Journal of Management Science and Engineering. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmse.2023.07.001

Navajas-Romero, V., MaCarmen, L.-M., & Ariza-Montes, A. (2017). Dependent self-employed workers in Europe. CIRIEC-Espana Revista de Economia Publica, Social y Cooperativa, 89(1), 167-198. https://doi.org/10.7203/CIRIEC-E.89.10008

Ranjbari, M., Shams Esfandabadi, Z., Zanetti, M. C., Scagnelli, S. D., Siebers, P.-O., Aghbashlo, M., Peng, W., Quatraro, F., & Tabatabaei, M. (2021). Three pillars of sustainability in the wake of COVID-19: A systematic review and future research agenda for sustainable development. Journal of Cleaner Production, 297, 126660. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2021.126660

Siltag, V., Bulbuloglu, S., Igdir, A., & Kaya, M. (2023). The Effect of Perceived Social Support by Nurses on Their Fear of Death Post-COVID-19 Pandemic Period. Journal of Radiology Nursing. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jradnu.2023.09.002

Wenjuan, Z., Zhong, K., He, M., Pham, T. H., Nguyen, Q. K., & Huy, P. Q. (2023). Volatility challenges for natural resources during COVID-19 and its impact on economic development for sustainable economic repossession. Resources Policy, 86, 104163. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resourpol.2023.104163

Wilson Dib, R., Spallone, A., Khawaja, F., Feldman, A., Cantu, S., & Chemaly, R. F. (2023). The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on hospital-acquired infections at a comprehensive cancer center. American Journal of Infection Control. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajic.2023.08.019

Xi, H., Li, Q., Hensher, D. A., Nelson, J. D., & Ho, C. (2023). Quantifying the impact of COVID-19 on travel behavior in different socio-economic segments. Transport Policy, 136, 98-112. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tranpol.2023.03.014

Zahid, R. M. A., Ali, Q., Saleem, A., & Sági, J. (2023). Impact of geographical, meteorological, demographic, and economic indicators on the trend of COVID-19: A global evidence from 202 affected countries. Heliyon, 9(9), e19365. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2023.e19365

Zhao, S., & Akhter, S. (2023). Negative psychological and educational impacts of Corona Virus Anxiety on Chinese university students: Exploring university students' perceptions. Heliyon, 9(10), e20373. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2023.e20373