Determinants of legal compliance, Covid-19 prevention health protocol, PLS-SEM models

Document Type



This study aims to determine the pattern of compliance of the people of Jambi City to the Covid-19 prevention health protocol. Various factors that influence the level of community compliance were analysed using the Structural Equation Model (SEM) approach with Partial Least Square (PLS) or SEM-PLS. Data were obtained from the results of a survey of the people of Jambi City who were selected based on regional sampling techniques, starting from the District and Village. Determination of the number of samples using the Slovin formula, the results obtained were 277 respondents. The results of the analysis show that the level of community compliance with the Covid-19 prevention health protocol is quite high. The legal awareness variable significantly mediates the effect of social status variables and legal socialization on legal compliance but is not significant as a mediator of the influence of legal culture variables on legal compliance. For this reason, it is necessary to concern all parties to build public awareness by (1) providing education and understanding through effective socialization programs, (2) building cooperation with community leaders, especially religious leaders and traditional leaders, and (3) providing concessions to the community. Public. So that the poor is not constrained in complying with the Covid-19 prevention health protocol.

First Page


Last Page


Page Range






Digital Object Identifier (DOI)





Adam, A. M. (2020). Sample size determination in survey research. Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, 90-97. https://doi.org/10.9734/jsrr/2020/v26i530263

Athumani, H. I., & Minja, G. J. (2017). The influencing factors of procurement regulatory compliance by Tanzanian local government authorities: Case of Arusha region. European Journal of Logistics, Purchasing and Supply Chain Management, 5(3), 1-12. https://www.eajournals.org/journals/european-journal-of-logistics-purchasing-and-supply-chain-management-ejlpscm/vol-5-issue-3-july-2017/influencing-factors-procurement-regulatory-compliance-tanzanian-local-government-authorities-case-arusha-region/

Barak"Corren, N., & Perry"Hazan, L. (2021). Bidirectional legal socialization and the boundaries of law: The case of enclave communities' compliance with COVID"19 regulations. Journal of Social Issues, 77(2), 631-662. https://doi.org/10.1111/josi.12443

Bavel, J. J. V., Baicker, K., Boggio, P. S., Capraro, V., Cichocka, A., Cikara, M., Crockett, M. J., Crum, A. J., Douglas, K. M., Druckman, J. N., Drury, J., Dube, O., Ellemers, N., Finkel, E. J., Fowler, J. H., Gelfand, M., Han, S., Haslam, S. A., Jetten, J., "¦ Willer, R. (2020). Using social and behavioural science to support COVID-19 pandemic response. Nature Human Behaviour 2020 4:5, 4(5), 460-471. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41562-020-0884-z

Bodas, M., & Peleg, K. (2020). Self-Isolation compliance in the COVID-19 era influenced by compensation: Findings from a recent survey In Israel. Health Affairs, 39(6), 936-941. https://doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.2020.00382

Calman, K. C. (2002). Communication of risk: choice, consent, and trust. The Lancet, 360(9327), 166-168. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(02)09421-7

Cenfetelli, & Bassellier. (2009). Interpretation of formative measurement in information systems research. MIS Quarterly, 33(4), 689-707. https://doi.org/10.2307/20650323

Clark, C., Davila, A., Regis, M., & Kraus, S. (2020). Predictors of COVID-19 voluntary compliance behaviors: An international investigation. Global Transitions, 2, 76-82. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.glt.2020.06.003

Disemadi, H. S., & Handika, D. O. (2020). Community compliance with the covid-19 protocol hygiene policy in Klaten Regency, Indonesia. Legality: Jurnal Ilmiah Hukum, 28(2), 121-133.

Djalante, R., Lassa, J., Setiamarga, D., Sudjatma, A., Indrawan, M., Haryanto, B., Mahfud, C., Sinapoy, M. S., Djalante, S., Rafliana, I., Gunawan, L. A., Surtiari, G. A. K., & Warsilah, H. (2020). Review and analysis of current responses to COVID-19 in Indonesia: Period of January to March 2020. Progress in Disaster Science, 6, 100091. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pdisas.2020.100091

Etikan, I., & Bala, K. (2017). Sampling and sampling methods. Biometrics & Biostatistics International Journal, 5(6), 215-218. https://doi.org/10.15406/bbij.2017.05.00149

Fagan, J., & Tyler, T. R. (2005). Legal socialization of children and adolescents. Social Justice Research, 18(3), 217-241. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11211-005-6823-3

Ghozali, I. (2014). Structural equation modeling: Metode alternatif dengan Partial Least Square(PLS) . Badan Penerbit Universitas Diponegoro.

Henseler, J., Ringle, C. M., & Sinkovics, R. R. (2009). The use of partial least squares path modeling in international marketing. In R. R. Sinkovics & R. R. Sinkovics (Eds.), New challenges to international marketing (Advances in international marketing (Vol. 20, pp. 277-319). https://doi.org/10.1108/S1474-7979(2009)0000020014

Kuswanto, K., & Anderson, I. (2021). Effect of service quality and motivation on the consumption behavior of students in the academic services. International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education (IJERE), 10(1), 86-96. https://doi.org/10.11591/ijere.v10i1.20794

Labban, L., Thallaj, N., & Labban, A. (2020). Assessing the level of awareness and knowledge of COVID 19 Pandemic among Syrians. Arch Med, 12, 1-5. https://doi.org/10.36648/1989-5216.12.2.309

Latan, H., & Ghozali, I. (2012). Partial least squares: konsep, teknik, dan aplikasi menggunakan program SmartPLS 2.0 M3. Badan Penerbit Universitas Diponegoro.

Lehner, F., & Haas, N. (2010). Knowledge management success factors €" proposal of an empirical research. Electronic Journal of Knowledge Management, 8(1), 79-90. https://academic-publishing.org/index.php/ejkm/article/view/891

Mukhlis, H., Widyastuti, T., Harlianty, R. A., Susanti, S., & Kumalasari, D. (2022). Study on awareness of COVID"19 and compliance with social distancing during COVID"19 pandemic in Indonesia. Journal of Community Psychology, 50(3), 1564-1578. https://doi.org/10.1002/jcop.22735

Murphy, K., Williamson, H., Sargeant, E., & McCarthy, M. (2020). Why people comply with COVID-19 social distancing restrictions: Self-interest or duty? Australian & New Zealand Journal of Criminology, 53(4), 477-496. https://doi.org/10.1177/0004865820954484

Neville, F. G., Templeton, A., Smith, J. R., & Louis, W. R. (2021). Social norms, social identities and the COVID"19 pandemic: Theory and recommendations. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 15(5). https://doi.org/10.1111/spc3.12596

Pak, A., McBryde, E., & Adegboye, O. A. (2021). Does high public trust amplify compliance with stringent COVID-19 Government health guidelines? A multi-country analysis using data from 102,627 individuals. Risk Management and Healthcare Policy, Volume 14, 293-302. https://doi.org/10.2147/RMHP.S278774

Papageorge, N. W., Zahn, M. v., Belot, M., van den Broek-Altenburg, E., Choi, S., Jamison, J. C., & Tripodi, E. (2021). Socio-demographic factors associated with self-protecting behavior during the Covid-19 pandemic. Journal of Population Economics, 34(2), 691-738. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00148-020-00818-x

Petter, Straub, & Rai. (2007). Specifying formative constructs in information systems research. MIS Quarterly, 31(4), 623-656. https://doi.org/10.2307/25148814

Qazi, A., Qazi, J., Naseer, K., Zeeshan, M., Hardaker, G., Maitama, J. Z., & Haruna, K. (2020). Analyzing situational awareness through public opinion to predict adoption of social distancing amid pandemic COVID"19. Journal of Medical Virology, 92(7), 849-855. https://doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25840

Raude, J., Lecrique, J.-M., Lasbeur, L., Leon, C., Guignard, R., du Roscoät, E., & Arwidson, P. (2020). Determinants of preventive behaviors in response to the COVID-19 Pandemic in France: Comparing the sociocultural, psychosocial, and social cognitive explanations. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 1-15. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.584500

Richter, N. F., Cepeda, G., Roldán, J. L., & Ringle, C. M. (2016). European management research using partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). European Management Journal, 34(6), 589-597. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.emj.2016.08.001

Salihu, A. C., Nabegu, A. B., Abdulkarim, B., & Mustapha, A. (2016). Analysis of the factors affecting facilities compliance to environmental regulations in Minna - Niger State, Nigeria. World Scientific News, 2(45), 174-184. https://www.infona.pl//resource/bwmeta1.element.psjd-9182bd23-8d41-40c8-b7b6-e7ebf6baac46

Taherdoost, H. (2016). Sampling methods in research methodology; how to choose a sampling technique for research. SSRN Electronic Journal. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3205035

Utama, I. M. A. (2020). Do Indonesian laws and policies on Covid-19 countermeasures action reflect legality? Udayana Journal of Law and Culture, 4(2), 211-228. https://doi.org/10.24843/UJLC.2020.v04.i02.p05

Walby, S. (2021). The COVID pandemic and social theory: Social democracy and public health in the crisis. European Journal of Social Theory, 24(1), 22-43. https://doi.org/10.1177/1368431020970127