Jurnal Keolahragaan


aerobic fitness, fat body mass, weight training, circuit training, elderly

Document Type



The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of weight training using circuit methods on aerobic fitness, body fat percentage, muscle mass percentage, and hand grip strength. This study is a one-group pretest-posttest quasi-experimental study with a sample of the elderly gymnastics group Sehat Bugar Ceria in Karanganyar Regency, Indonesia. Twenty-seven study subjects aged 60-75 participated in the exercise for 12 meetings. All research subjects can take all pretests and posttests in the form of a six-minute walk test, a hand grip strength test using a handgrip dynamometer, and body composition testing using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Changes that occurred before and after exercise were analyzed using paired t-tests. This study showed that aerobic fitness increased significantly (p = 0.001), body fat percentage decreased significantly (p = 0.008), but there was no significant change in the percentage of muscle mass (p > 0.05) or hand grip strength (p > 0.05). The results of this study showed that weight training using circuit methods can improve aerobic fitness and reduce body fat percentage in the elderly group.

Page Range






Digital Object Identifier (DOI)





Ahmed, B., Sultana, R., & Greene, M. W. (2021). Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy Adipose tissue and insulin resistance in obese. Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, 137(January), 111315. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2021.111315

Antunes, B. M., Rosa-Neto, J. C., Batatinha, H. A. P., Franchini, E., Teixeira, A. M., & Lira, F. S. (2020). Physical fitness status modulates the inflammatory proteins in peripheral blood and circulating monocytes: role of PPAR-gamma. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-70731-6

Aryana, I. G. P. S., Hapsari, A. A. A. R., & Kuswardhani, R. A. T. (2018). Myokine Regulation as Marker of Sarcopenia in Elderly. Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, 2(2), 38. https://doi.org/10.21705/mcbs.v2i2.32

Bao, W., Sun, Y., Zhang, T., Zou, L., Wu, X., Wang, D., & Chen, Z. (2020). Exercise Programs for Muscle Mass, Muscle Strength and Physical Performance in Older Adults with Sarcopenia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Aging and Disease, 11(4), 863. https://doi.org/10.14336/AD.2019.1012

Biben, V., & Defi, Irma Ruslina, Suselo, D. (2019). Elastic Band Training Effect to Parameters of Sarcopenia in Elderly Community-Dwelling. Global Medical and Health Communication, 7(38), 136-142. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.29313/gmhc.v7i2.4468

BPS. (2022). Statistik Penduduk Lanjut Usia 2022. Badan Pusat Statistik. https://www.bps.go.id/publication/download.html?nrbvfeve=Mzc1MmYxZDFkOWI0MWFhNjliZTRjNjVj&xzmn=aHR0cHM6Ly93d3cuYnBzLmdvLmlkL3B1YmxpY2F0aW9uLzIwMjIvMTIvMjcvMzc1MmYxZDFkOWI0MWFhNjliZTRjNjVjL3N0YXRpc3Rpay1wZW5kdWR1ay1sYW5qdXQtdXNpYS0yMDIyLmh0bWw%3D&twoadfnoa

Ellingsgaard, H., Hojman, P., & Pedersen, B. K. (2019). ScienceDirect Exercise and health "” emerging roles of IL-6. Current Opinion in Psychology, 10, 49-54. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cophys.2019.03.009

Fardman, A., Banschick, G. D., Rabia, R., Percik, R., Segev, S., Klempfner, R., Grossman, E., & Maor, E. (2021). Cardiorespiratory Fitness Is an Independent Predictor of Cardiovascular Morbidity and Mortality and Improves Accuracy of Prediction Models. Canadian Journal of Cardiology, 37(2), 241-250. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cjca.2020.05.017

Fernström, M., Fernberg, U., Eliason, G., & Hurtig-wennlöf, A. (2017). Aerobic fitness is associated with low cardiovascular disease risk : the impact of lifestyle on early risk factors for atherosclerosis in young healthy Swedish individuals - the Lifestyle , Biomarker , and Atherosclerosis study. 91-99. https://doi.org/10.2147/VHRM.S125966

Gao, Q., Mei, F., Shang, Y., Hu, K., Chen, F., Zhao, L., & Ma, B. (2021). Global prevalence of sarcopenic obesity in older adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Clinical Nutrition, 40(7), 4633-4641. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2021.06.009

Garg, S. S., Kushwaha, K., Dubey, R., & Gupta, J. (2023). Association between obesity, inflammation and insulin resistance: Insights into signaling pathways and therapeutic interventions. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 200(May), 110691. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diabres.2023.110691

Greco, E. A., Pietschmann, P., & Migliaccio, S. (2019). Osteoporosis and sarcopenia increase frailty syndrome in the elderly. Frontiers in Endocrinology, 10(APR), 1-10. https://doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2019.00255

Han, L., Wu, S., & Hu, P. (2018). The functions of sarcopenia related myokines. Translational Medicine of Aging, 2(2018), 38-41. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tma.2018.08.001

Jo, D., Yoon, G., Kim, O. Y., & Song, J. (2022). A new paradigm in sarcopenia: Cognitive impairment caused by imbalanced myokine secretion and vascular dysfunction. Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy, 147, 112636. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2022.112636

Kang, S. J., Ko, K. J., Yoon, J. R., Yoo, C. G., Park, S., & Ha, G. C. (2021). Changes and differences in functional fitness among older adults over a four year period. JOurnal of Men's Health, 17(2), 70-76. https://doi.org/10.31083/jomh.2021.002

Kolahdouzi, S., Baghadam, M., Kani-golzar, F. A., & Saeidi, A. (2019). Physiology & Behavior Progressive circuit resistance training improves in fl ammatory biomarkers and insulin resistance in obese men. Physiology & Behavior, 205(May 2018), 15-21. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2018.11.033

Kunz, H. E., Hart, C. R., Gries, K. J., Parvizi, M., Laurenti, M., Moore, N., Zhang, X., Ryan, Z., Polley, E. C., Jensen, M. D., Lanza, I. R., Man, C. D., & Vella, A. (2021). Adipose tissue macrophage populations and in fl ammation are associated with systemic in fl ammation and insulin resistance in obesity. May 2021, 105-121. https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00070.2021

Langhammer, B., Bergland, A., & Rydwik, E. (2018). The Importance of Physical Activity Exercise among Older People. BioMed Research International, 2018, 13-15. https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/7856823

Lee, J. H., & Jun, H. S. (2019). Role of myokines in regulating skeletal muscle mass and function. Frontiers in Physiology, 10(JAN), 1-9. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2019.00042

McPhee, J. S., French, D. P., Jackson, D., Nazroo, J., Pendleton, N., & Degens, H. (2016). Physical activity in older age: perspectives for healthy ageing and frailty. Biogerontology, 17(3), 567-580. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10522-016-9641-0

Mendelson, M., Marillier, M., Bailly, S., Flore, P., Borel, J. C., Vivodtzev, I., Doutreleau, S., Tamisier, R., Pépin, J. L., & Verges, S. (2018). Maximal exercise capacity in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis. European Respiratory Journal, 51(6). https://doi.org/10.1183/13993003.02697-2017

Menz, V., Gatterer, H., Amin, S. B., Huber, R., & Burtscher, M. (2021). Effects of regular long-term circuit training (Once per week) on cardiorespiratory fitness in previously sedentary adults. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(20). https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182010897

Minetto, M. A., Giannini, A., Mcconnell, R., Busso, C., Torre, G., & Massazza, G. (2020). Common Musculoskeletal Disorders in the Elderly : The Star Triad. Clinical Medicine, 9. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9041216

Nasrulloh, A., Prasetyo, Y., Nugroho, S., Yuniana, R., Pratama, K. W., Mustapha, A., Idrus, S. Z. S., & Nasrulloh, A. (2020). Tricet Method to Increase the Hypertrophy Muscle. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1529(3). https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1529/3/032006

Nusdwinuringtyas, N. (2018). Six Minute Walking Distance Cut-off Point in Indonesian ( Mongoloid ) Population. J Indon Med Assoc, 68, 389-394.

Oliveira, D. V. de, Pivetta, N. R. S., Scherer, F. C., & Nascimento Júnior, J. R. A. do. (2020). Muscle strength and functional capacity of elderly people engaged in two types of strength training. Fisioterapia Em Movimento, 33, 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1590/1980-5918.033.ao49

Omron. (n.d.). Petunjuk Penggunaan Monitor Komposisi Tubuh Model HBF-375 Karada Scan. Omron Health Care Co.Ltd.

Pedersen, B. K. (2017). Anti-inflammatory effects of exercise : role in diabetes and cardiovascular disease. European Journal of Clinical Investigation, 600-611. https://doi.org/10.1111/eci.12781

Ponti, F., Santoro, A., Mercatelli, D., Gasperini, C., Conte, M., Martucci, M., Sangiorgi, L., Franceschi, C., & Bazzocchi, A. (2020). Aging and Imaging Assessment of Body Composition: From Fat to Facts. Frontiers in Endocrinology, 10(January). https://doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2019.00861

Rismayanthi, C., Zein, M. I., Mulyawan, R., & Nurfadhila, R. (2022). The effect of low impact aerobic exercise on increasing physical fitness for the elderly. Jurnal Keolahragaan, 10(1), 136-146. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.21831/jk.v10i1.48743

Sasaki, K. ichiro, & Fukumoto, Y. (2022). Sarcopenia as a comorbidity of cardiovascular disease. Journal of Cardiology, 79(5), 596-604. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jjcc.2021.10.013

Scisciola, L., Fontanella, R. A., Surina, Cataldo, V., Paolisso, G., & Barbieri, M. (2021). Sarcopenia and cognitive function: Role of myokines in muscle brain cross"talk. Life, 11(2), 1-12. https://doi.org/10.3390/life11020173

Scott, D., Blyth, F., Naganathan, V., Le, D. G., Handelsman, D. J., Waite, L. M., & Hirani, V. (2023). Sarcopenia prevalence and functional outcomes in older men with obesity : Comparing the use of the EWGSOP2 sarcopenia versus ESPEN-EASO sarcopenic obesity consensus de fi nitions. Clinical Nutrition, 42(9), 1610-1618. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2023.07.014

Sellami, M., Bragazzi, N. L., Aboghaba, B., & Elrayess, M. A. (2021). The Impact of Acute and Chronic Exercise on Immunoglobulins and Cytokines in Elderly: Insights From a Critical Review of the Literature. Frontiers in Immunology, 12(April), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.631873

Vikberg, S., Sörlén, N., Brandén, L., Johansson, J., Nordström, A., Hult, A., & Nordström, P. (2019). Effects of Resistance Training on Functional Strength and Muscle Mass in 70-Year-Old Individuals With Pre-sarcopenia: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 20(1), 28-34. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2018.09.011

WHO. (2020). Who guidelines on physical activity and sedentary behaviour. WHO.

Yachsie, B. T. P. W. B., Suharjana, S., Wijaya, R. G., & Nasrulloh, A. (2022). Circuit bodyweight training: does it affect increasing arm muscle endurance and archery accuracy in pandemic conditions? Jurnal Keolahragaan, 10(2), 208-216. https://doi.org/10.21831/jk.v10i2.48112

Yuniana, R., Kushartanti, B. M. W., Nasrulloh, A., & Pratama, K. W. (2023). The Effectiveness of the Weight Training Method and Rest Interval on VO 2 max , Flexibility , Muscle Strength , Muscular Endurance , and Fat Percentage in Students. Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences, 11(March), 213-223. https://doi.org/10.13189/saj.2023.110125